Sources & Credits

Sources for World Population Video Animation

General Sources:
Angus Maddison, The World Economy, OECD Publishing, 2007; Colin McEvedy & Richard Jones, Atlas of World Population History. New York, NY: Facts on File, 1978; The following by Colin McEvedy, all published by Penguin Books: The Penguin Atlas of Modern History (1972), The Penguin Atlas of North American History (1988), The New Penguin Atlas of Medieval History (1992), The Penguin Atlas of African History (1995), The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Pacific (1998); The New Penguin Atlas of Ancient History (2002), Cities of the Classical World (2011); A. Taylor, American Colonies: The Settling of North America, Vol. 1. New York, NY: Penguin Books, 2001.

For the Americas, 1 CE – 1650:
Terence N. D’Altroy, The Incas. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2003; William M. Denevan (Ed.) The Native Population of the Americas in 1492 (Second Edition), Madison, WI: University of Madison Press, 1992; Stanley L. Engerman, “A Population History of the Caribbean,” in Michael R. Haines and Richard H. Steckel (Eds.), A Population History of North America (pp.483-528), Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000; David Henige, Numbers from Nowhere: The American Indian Contact Population Debate. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998; Charles C. Mann, 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus (Second Edition), New York: Vintage Books, 2011; Robert McCaa, “The Peopling of Mexico from Origins to Revolution,” in Michael R. Haines and Richard H. Steckel (Eds.), A Population History of North America (pp.241-304). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000; M.C. Snipp, American Indians: The First of this Land. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation., 1989; D.E. Stannard, American Holocaust. New York, NY: Oxford, 1992; K. Star, California: A History. New York, NY: Modern Library, 2007; R. Thornton, Studying Native America: Problems & Prospects. Madison, WI: Wisconsin University Press, 1999; D. H. Ubelaker, “Population Size, Contact to Nadir,” in Ubelaker, D. H., Sturtevant, W.C., Stanford, D., & Smith, B.D. (Eds.), Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 3: Environment, Origins, and Population (pp. 694-701). Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 2007; Rudolph A. Zambardino, “Mexico’s Population in the Sixteenth Century: Demographic Anomaly or Mathematical Illusion,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History, (pp. 1-27), Vol. 11, No. 1, 1980.

 

Online Databases
U.S. Census Bureau: International Database (2013); “Race and Hispanic Origin: 1790 to 1990 by State,” 2002; “Population Distribution and Change: 2000 to 2010,” 2011; 2010 Census Urban Area List Files (2013); Demographic Trends in the 20th Century (2002); Statistics Canada: “Population, Urban and Rural, by Province and Territory,” (2011); “Population Projections for Canada, Provinces and Territories: 2009 to 2036” 2010; Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service, “National Population Projections,” 2012; A.  Maddison, “Statistics on World Population, GDP and Per Capita GDP, 1-2008 AD, “ 2010; The Frankema-Jerven African Population Database 1850-1960, version 1.0; published in E. Frankema and M. Jerven, “Writing History Backwards and Sideways: Towards a Consensus on African Population, 1850-present” Economic History Review 67, S1, (2014); United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. World Urbanization Prospects; ESRI Map Layers: ESRI, World Population Density, 2012.

 

Sources for World Population Dot Notes

AFRICA

Algeria:
Christopher Ehret, The Civilizations of Africa: A History to 1800, Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2002; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Colin McEvedy, Cities of the Classical World, London: Penguin, 2011; Colin McEvedy, The Penguin Atlas of Modern History (to 1815), London: Penguin, 1986; J. Gordon Melton, Faiths Across Time: 5,000 Years of Religious History, Volume 4. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2014; Office of National Statistics, Algeria.

Angola:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Encyclopedia of Africa, Volume 2: Oxford University Press, 2000; James W. Martin, Historical Dictionary of Angola: Scarecrow Press, 2011; National Institute of Statistics, Rwanda; United Nations Population Division; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

Benin:
CIA, The World Factbook (online); Encyclopedia Britannica Online; National Institute of Statistics, Benin.

Botswana:
Botswana Census; Encyclopedia Britannica Online.

Burkina Faso:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Pierre Englebert, Burkina Faso: Unsteady Statehood in West Africa, Boulder: Westview Press, 1998; National Institute of Statistics and Demography, Burkina Faso; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

Burundi
Census Bureau, Burundi; Encyclopedia of Africa, Volume 2: Oxford University Press, 2000; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; USAID.

Cameroon:
Molefi Asante, The History of Africa, New York: Routledge, 2007; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; United Nations Population Division.

Central African Republic:
Central Bureau of the Census, Central African Republic; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

Chad:
British Broadcasting Corporation; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; National Institute of Statistics for Economic and Demographic Studies, Chad.

Comoros:
Comoros Population and Housing Census 2003; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; National Directorate of the Census (Comoros).

Côte d’Ivoire:
Atlas de la Côte d’Ivoire, Second Edition, Paris: Jeune Afrique, 1983; British Broadcasting Corporation; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; National Statistics Institute, Côte d’Ivoire; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

Democratic Republic of the Congo:
Molefi Asante, The History of Africa, New York: Routledge, 2007; British Broadcasting Corporation; Encyclopedia Britannica; Craig Lockard, Societies, Networks and Transitions, Volume I: To 500: A Global History, Boston: Cengage Learning, 2014; Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones, Atlas of World Population History, London: Penguin, 1978; Metropolitan Museum of Art; Peter N. Stearns, et. al., World Civilizations, Upper Saddle River: Longman, 2011; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs; United Nations Population Division.

Djibouti:
CIA, The World Factbook (online).

Egypt:
British Broadcasting Corporation; Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics, Egypt; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Colin McEvedy, Cities of the Classical World, London: Penguin, 2011; Colin McEvedy, The Penguin Atlas of African History, London: Penguin, 1995; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs;United Nations Population Division, World Urbanization Prospects, 2014 Revision.

Equatorial Guinea:
British Broadcasting Corporation; Dirección General de Estadisticas y Cuentas Nacionales, Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial; Population Reference Bureau.

Eritrea:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

Ethiopia:
Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia; Basil Davidson, Africa in History, New York: Simon and Schuster, 2005; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Encyclopedia of Africa, Volume 2: Oxford University Press, 2000; David Shin and Thomas Ofcansky, Historical Dictionary of Ethiopia, Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 2013.

Gabon:
British Broadcasting Corporation; Bureau of Statistics, Gambia; Direction Generale de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, Gabon; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Europa Publications, Regional Surveys of the World: Africa South of the Sahara, London: Routledge, 2003.

Ghana:
Basil Davidson, Africa in History, New York: Simon and Schuster, 2005; GEO ExPro Magazine Online; Ghana Statistical Service; Kevin Shirlington, ed., Encyclopedia of African History. New York: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2005; United Nations Department of Economics and Social Affairs.

Guinea:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Institut National de la Statistique de Guinée; The United Nations Refugee Agency.

Guinea-Bissau:
Boubacar-Sid Barry, Conflict, Livelihoods, and Poverty in Guinea-Bissau. DC: World Bank Publications, 2007; United Nations Population Division.

Kenya:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; National Bureau of Statistics, Kenya; Encyclopedia of Africa, Volume 2: Oxford University Press, 2000; United Nations Population Division.

Lesotho:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; National Bureau of Statistics, Lesotho.

Liberia:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Institute of Statistics and Geo-Information Services, Liberia.

Libya:
British Broadcasting Corporation; United Nations Population Division.

Madagascar:
British Broadcasting Corporation; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; National Institute of Statistics, Madagascar; Kevin Shirlington, ed., Encyclopedia of African History. New York: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2005; United Nations Population Division.

Malawi:
British Broadcasting Corporation; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; National Statistical Office of Malawi; United Nations Population Division.

Mali:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Encyclopedia of Africa, Volume 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000; National Institute of Statistics, Mali; United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.

Mauritania:
British Broadcasting Corporation; Anthony G. Pazzanita, Historical Dictionary of Mauritania. Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 2008; Office National de la Statistique, Mauretanie; United Nations Population Division.

Mauritius:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Central Statistical Office of Mauritius.

Morocco:
Paul Bairoch, Cities and Economic Development: From the Dawn of History to the Present, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; High Planning Commission, Morocco; Colin McEvedy, Cities of the Classical World. London: Penguin, 2011; Susan A. Miller, A History of Modern Morocco, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013; United Nations; United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.

Mozambique:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Encyclopedia of Africa, Volume 2, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000; National Institute of Statistics, Mozambique; National Statistical Office of Mozambique; United Nations Population Division.

Namibia:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Namibia Statistics Agency.

Niger:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; National Institute of Statistics, Niger; United Nations Population Division.

Nigeria:
Molefi Asante, The History of Africa, New York: Routledge, 2007; Davidson, Basil, Africa in History, New York: Simon and Schuster, 2005; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Encyclopedia of Africa, Volume 2, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000; Metropolitan Museum of Art; National Population Commission, Nigeria; United Nations; Randy J. Sparks, The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-century Atlantic Odyssey. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004; Toyin Falola and Ann Genova, Historical Dictionary of Nigeria. Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 2009; United Nations; United Nations Population Division.

Republic of the Congo:
British Broadcasting Corporation; Center of National Statistics, Republic of the Congo.

Rwanda:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; National Institute of Statistics, Rwanda.

Senegal:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; National Agency of Statistics and Demography, Senegal; United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.

Sierra Leone:
Encyclopedia Britannica; Statistics Sierra Leone.

Somalia:
British Broadcasting Corporation; Encyclopedia of Africa, Volume 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000; United Nations Population Division.

South Africa:
City of Cape Town Government; City of Johannesburg Government; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Colin McEvedy, The Penguin Atlas of African History. London: Penguin, 1995; Statistics South Africa.

South Sudan:
British Broadcasting Corporation; Robert S. Kramer, et. al., Historical Dictionary of the Sudan. Plymouth: Scarecrow Press, 2013; Colin McEvedy, The Penguin Atlas of African History. London: Penguin, 1995; United Nations Population Division.

Sudan:
Molefi Asante, The History of Africa, New York: Routledge, 2007; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones, Atlas of World Population History, London: Penguin, 1978; Colin McEvedy, The Penguin Atlas of African History, London: Penguin, 1995; Robert S. Kramer, et. al., Historical Dictionary of the Sudan. Plymouth: Scarecrow Press, 2013.

Swaziland:
British Broadcasting Corporation; Encyclopedia of Africa, Volume 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000; Colin McEvedy, The Penguin Atlas of African History, London: Penguin, 1995; National Bureau of Statistics Tanzania; The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS; United Nations Population Division.

Togo:
British Broadcasting Corporation; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; National Office of Statistics, Togo.

Tunisia:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Colin McEvedy, Cities of the Classical World, London: Penguin, 2011; Colin McEvedy, The New Penguin Atlas of Medieval History. London: Penguin, 1992; National Institute of Statistics, Tunisia; United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization; Tiyambe Zeleza, A Modern Economic History of Africa: the Nineteenth Century, Nairobi: East African Publishers, 1997.

Uganda:
British Broadcasting Corporation; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Uganda Bureau of Statistics; United Nations Population Division.

Western Sahara:
The Economist; United Nations Population Division.

Zambia:
Central Statistical Office of Zambia; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; United Nations Population Division.

Zimbabwe:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency.

THE AMERICAS

Argentina:
Argentina Tourism website; City Data website; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Alex Everett Frye and William A. McBeth, Supplement: Area and Population of Principal Countries and Colonies, New Advanced Geography, Boston: Ginn & Co., 1904; Angus Gunn, Encyclopedia of Disasters: Environmental Catastrophes and Human Tragedies, Westport: Greenwood Press, 2008; Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censos de Republica Argentina; New World Encyclopedia; James Scobie, Secondary Cities of Argentina, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1988; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division; World Population Review.

Bolivia:
British Broadcasting Corporation; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Instituto Nacional de Estadística, República de Bolivia; Lonely Planet website; Peter N. Stearns, et. al., World Civilizations: The Global Experience, Sixth Edition, Upper Saddle River: Longman, 2011.

Brazil:
Brazil Tourism website; Brazil.org website; C.A. Brebbia, Sustainable Development and Planning VI, WIT Press: Southampton, UK, 2013; John J. Crocitti, Belo Horizonte, Brazil Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic, Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2012; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Goiânia website; Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica; Maceió information website; Manaus Tourism website; Natal Tourism website; New Geography website; Reference.com; Peter N. Stearns, et. al., World Civilizations: The Global Experience, Sixth Edition, Upper Saddle River: Longman, 2011;  United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); World Port Source; United Nations Department of Economics and Social Affairs, Population Division; World Population Review

Canada:
Canadian Museum of Immigration; City of Quebec; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; James Lorimer, Ottawa: An Illustrated History, Toronto, 1986; McCord Museum website; Native American Indian Facts website; Jeff O’Brien, Saskatoon: A History in Photographs, Coteau Books, 2006; Ottawa City website; Port of Halifax; Quebec Tourism website; Statistics Canada; The Canada Yearbook; The Canadian Encyclopedia; Toronto tourism guide; D. H. Ubelaker, “Population Size, Contact to Nadir”, Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 3: Environment, Origins, and Population (pp. 694-701),Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.

Chile:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas; Anson Uriel Hancock, “Chapter IV: Railroads, Army, and Navy –Educational Matters” A History of Chile, Chicago: C. H. Sergel, 1893.

Colombia:
Colombia Tourism website; Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica, Republica de Columbia; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Global Heritage Fund; Lonely Planet Tourism guide

Costa Rica:
BBC; costarica.com; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos; Siquirres Tourism website; United Nations Department of Economics and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Cuba:
British Broadcasting Corporation; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Oficina Nacional de Estadisticas, Cuba.

Dominican Republic:
William Denevan, Native Population of the Americas 1492, Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1976; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; La Oficina Nacional de Estadística.

Ecuador:
British Broadcasting Corporation; El Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censos del Ecuador; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

El Salvador:
Dirección General de Estadistica y Censos; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Hawaii Library; United Nations Department of Economics and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Guatemala:
BBC; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Guatemala; Mayan Ruins website; Colin McEvedy, The Penguin Atlas of North American History, New York: Penguin Books, 1988; Population Reference Bureau; Smithsonian Magazine; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

Guyana:
BBC; Bureau of Statistics Guyana; Encyclopedia Britannica; Lonely Planet website.

Haiti:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Institut Haïtien de Statistique et d’Informatique; Lonely Planet website; Time.com; United States Department of State.

Honduras:
Ceiba Tourism website; Central Bank of Honduras; Instituto Nacional de Estadística Honduras; United Nations Department of Economics and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Jamaica:
BBC; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Statistical Institute of Jamaica.

Mexico:
BorderPlex Alliance website; Consejo Nacional de Población, México; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; History.com; Huffington Post; Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia; Colin McEvedy, The Penguin Atlas of North American History, New York: Penguin Books, 1988; Colin McEvedy, The Penguin Atlas of the Pacific, New York: Penguin Books, 1998; Public Broadcasting Service; Merida Government website; Mexico Tourism website; Nicholas Saunders, Excavating the Past: The Aztec Empire, Chicago: Heinemann Library, 2005; Tijuana Government website; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); Peter N. Stearns, et. al., World Civilizations: The Global Experience, Sixth Edition, Upper Saddle River: Longman, 2011 ; United Nations Department of Economics and Social Affairs, Population Division; Walter R. T. Witschey and Clifford Brown, Edzná, Historical Dictionary of Mesoamerica, Scarecrow Press, Inc: Plymouth, UK, 2012; World Book Encyclopedia.

Nicaragua:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos, Nicaragua; Laprense.com; Nicaragua Tourism Guide; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

Panama:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censo, Panamá; United States Department of State; United States National Archives.

Paraguay:
BBC; Ciudad del Este Muncipal website; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Lonely Planet website; Paraguay Dirección General de Estadísticas, Encuestas y Censos.

Peru:
Ancient.eu website; BBC; Cajamarca tourism website; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; History.com; Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Peru; Peter N. Stearns, et. al., World Civilizations: The Global Experience, Sixth Edition, Upper Saddle River: Longman, 2011; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); United Nations Department of Economics and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Puerto Rico:
CIA, The World Factbook (online); Lonely Planet website; U.S. Census Bureau.

Trinidad and Tobago:
Trinidad and Tobago Commonwealth website.

United States:
About North Georgia website; Airport Technology website; Albuquerque Tourism website; American Association of Petroleum Geologists; Appalachian Regional Commission website; Atlantic City website; Bay Area Census; Carson City History website; Civil War Trust website; Denver.org; Detroit History website; Ellis Island Foundation; Encyclopedia of Alabama; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Explore Pennsylvania History website; Explore Southern History website; Georgia Encyclopedia website; Historic Omaha website; History of Massachusetts website; History.org; Jacksonville Tourism website; Las Vegas History website; Learn North Carolina website; Louisville Tourism website; Memphis State website; Mill City Museum; Milwaukee History website; Natchez Pilgrimage website; National Geographic Online; Natural Park Service; North Carolina History website; Ohio History website; Olympia Government website; Portland Tourism website; Rochester Library; San Diego History website; Seattle Government website; St. Louis State website; St. Paul Government website; Susan B. Anthony House website; Tennessee State website; Texas A&M University; Texas Online website; D. H. Ubelaker, “Population Size, Contact to Nadir”, Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 3: Environment, Origins, and Population (pp. 694-701),Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office; U.S. Census Bureau; United Nations Department of Economics and Social Affairs, Population Division;; Wichita Chamber of Commerce; Worcester History website.

Uruguay:
British Broadcasting Corporation; Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Uruguay.

Venezuela:
BBC; Encyclopedia Britannica; Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Venezuela; Lonely Planet website.

ASIA AND OCEANIA

Afghanistan:
Ancient History Encyclopedia Online; Central Statistics Office Afghanistan; City Mayors; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Michael C. Howard, Transnationalism in Ancient and Medieval Societies: The Role of Cross-Border Trade and Travel, McFarland, 2012; National Geographic; Naval Postgraduate School; The Guardian; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

Armenia:
Encyclopedia Britannica, 2014 Book of the Year, Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 2014; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; National Statistics Service of the Republic of Armenia; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Australia:
Australian Bureau of Statistics; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Azerbaijan:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online, State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan; TIME; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

Bahrain:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Kingdom of Bahrain Central Informatics Organisation.

Bangladesh:
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics; City Mayors; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations; Institute of Governance Studies, BRAC University, State of Cities: Urban Governance in Dhaka, Dhaka, 2012; Mizanur Rahman, et. al., Flood Management in the Flood Plain of Bangladesh, 2005; Syedur Rahman, Historical Dictionary of Bangladesh, Fourth Edition, Scarecrow Press, 2010; Peter N. Stearns, et. al., World Civilizations: The Global Experience, Sixth Edition, Upper Saddle River: Longman, 2011.

Cambodia:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; National Institute of Statistics of Cambodia; Norman G. Owen, The Emergence of Modern Southeast Asia, Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2005; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

China:
Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong; China Highlights; Chinafolio; Steven Danver, Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures, and Contemporary Issues, New York: Routledge, 2013; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Far West China; Jacques Gernet, A History of Chinese Civilization, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, 1996; Guiyang Municipal Government; Haikou Tourism Development Commission; Kunming Municipal Tourism Development Commission; Lewis, Mark Edward, The Early Chinese Empires: Qin and Han, Harvard University Press, 2007; Macalester College; Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones, Atlas of World Population History, London: Penguin, 1978; Frederick W. Mote, Imperial China: 900-1800, First Harvard University Press, 2003; Nanchang Municipal Government; National Bureau of Statistics of China; Project Gutenberg Self-Publishing Press; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); Hans van de Ven, War and Nationalism in China: 1925-1945, Routledge, 2012; Paul A. Van Dyke, The Canton Trade: Life and Enterprise of the China Coast, 1700-1845, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2005; World Public Library.

Cyprus:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Statistical Service of the Republic of Cyprus.

Fiji:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Georgia:
Batumi Oil Terminal; CIA, The World Factbook (online); Encyclopedia Britannia Online; Colin McEvedy, The New Penguin Atlas of Medieval History, London: Penguin, 1992; State Department for Statistics of Georgia; The Guardian.

India:
BBC News; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Abraham Eraly, The First Spring: The Golden Age of India, New Delhi: Penguin Books India, 2011; S. Gajrani, History, Religion and Culture of India, Volume 6, Delhi: Isha Books, 2004; Government of Andhra Pradesh; Metropolitan Museum of Art; Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones, Atlas of World Population History, Great Britain: Penguin, 1978; Population Education; Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India; Sailendra Nath Sen, Ancient Indian History and Civilization, India: New Age International, 1999; Students’ Britannica India, Volume 5, Hong Kong: Encyclopedia Britannica, 2000; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); World Public Library.

Indonesia:
Badan Pusat Statistik, Republik Indonesia; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Norman G. Owen, The Emergence of Modern Southeast Asia, Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2005; M. C. Ricklefs, A History of Modern Indonesia Since c. 1200, Fourth Edition, Stanford University Press 2008; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Iran
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Iran Chamber Society; Lonely Planet online; Colin McEvedy, The New Penguin Atlas of Medieval History, London: Penguin, 1992; Places of Peace and Power; Statistical Centre of Iran; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

Iraq
BBC News; Central Organization for Statistics and Information Technology (Iraq); Daily Mail; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Kurdistan Regional Government; Colin McEvedy, Cities of the Classical World, London: Penguin, 2011; New York Times Online; Peter N. Stearns, et. al., World Civilizations: The Global Experience, Sixth Edition, Upper Saddle River: Longman, 2011; United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights; University of Baghdad.

Israel
Al-Monitor; Central Bureau of Statistics, State of Israel; CIA, The World Factbook (online); Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Colin McEvedy, Cities of the Classical World, London: Penguin, 2011; Office of the United Nations Special Coordinator for the Middle East Peace Process (UNSCO), Gaza in 2020: A Liveable Place?, 2012; Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics; Population Reference Bureau; TIME.

Japan:
About Education; BBC History; Columbia University; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Louis Frédéric, Japan Encyclopedia, 2002; Fukuoka City Promotion; Japan Atlas Online; Japan National Tourism Organization; Colin McEvedy, The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Pacific, New York: Penguin, 1998; Metropolitan Museum of Art; Koji Mizoguchi, The Archaeology of Japan: From the Earliest Rice Farming Villages to the Rise of the State, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013; Juliane Mouton, Ultimate Handbook Guide to Saitama: (Japan) Travel Guide, SamEnrico, 2014; New World Encyclopedia Online; Osaka Prefectural Government; Statistics Bureau of Japan; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division; World Guides; Yoshinogari Historical Park.

Jordan:
Department of Statistics, The Kingdom of Jordan; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Kazakhstan:
CNN; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; The Agency of Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

Kuwait:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Kuwait Central Statistical Bureau; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Kyrgyzstan:
National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic; University of Kyrgyzstan.

Laos:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; National Statistic Center of the Lao PDR; Norman G. Owen, The Emergence of Modern Southeast Asia, Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2005; United Nations   Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Lebanon:
Aljazeera; BBC News; Central Administration for Statistics, Lebanese Republic; European University Institute; Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees; Syrian Refugees; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

Malaysia:
CNN; Department of Statistics Malaysia; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations; Norman G. Owen, The Emergence of Modern Southeast Asia, Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2005; TIME; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Mongolia:
Embassy of Mongolia to the United States of America; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; National Statistical Office of Mongolia.

Myanmar:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations; Myanmar Central Statistical Organization; Norman G. Owen, The Emergence of Modern Southeast Asia, Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2005; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Nepal:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Government of Nepal, Central Bureau of Statistics; Naturally Nepal; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

New Zealand
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; New Zealand National Statistical Office; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

North Korea:
Central Bureau of Statistics: DPR Korea 2008 Population Census National Report; CIA, The World Factbook (online); Encyclopedia Britannica Online.

Pakistan:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Intizar Hussain, et. al., “Irrigation and Poverty in Pakistan: A Review of Policy Issues and Options,” in Managing Water for the Poor: Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on Pro-Poor Intervention Strategies in Irrigated Agriculture in Asia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan and Vietnam, 2001; Christophe Jaffrelot, A History of Pakistan and Its Origins, Anthem Press, 2004; Pakistan Bureau of Statistics; The Express Tribune; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

Papua New Guinea:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; National Statistical Office of Papua New Guinea; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Philippines:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; National Statistics Office of the Philippines; Norman G. Owen, The Emergence of Modern Southeast Asia, Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2005; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Oman:
BBC News; Encyclopedia Britannia Online; Sultanate of Oman, Ministry of National Economy; Time of Oman, Times News Service.

Qatar:
Population Reference Bureau; Qatar Ministry of Development Planning and Statistics.

Saudi Arabia:
Madawi Al-Rasheed, A History of Saudi Arabia, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011; Central Department of Statistics, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Michael Dumper and Bruce Stanley, Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia, Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 2007; Yasser Elsheshtawy, The Evolving Arab City: Tradition, Modernity & Urban Development, Oxfordshire: Routledge, 2008; Saudi Arabia Market Information Resource (SAMIRAD); Saudi Commission for Tourism & Antiquities; United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA); James Wynbrandt, A Brief History of Saudi Arabia, Second Edition, United States of America: Facts on File, 2010.

Singapore:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Norman G. Owen, The Emergence of Modern Southeast Asia, Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2005; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Solomon Islands:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

South Korea:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Cecilia Hae-Jin Lee, Frommer’s South Korea, 3rd Edition: Frommer’s, 2012; National Statistical Office of the Republic of Korea; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

Sri Lanka:
BBC News; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; United Nations Data; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

Syria:
Aljazeera; Central Bureau of Statistics, Syrian Arab Republic; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Colin McEvedy, Cities of the Classical World, London: Penguin, 2011; The Kurdish Project; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

Taiwan:
BBC News; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Lonely Planet, Taiwan; Ministry of the Interior, Republic of China (Taiwan); New Taipei City Government; Tainan City Government; World Public Library.

Tajikistan:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Tajikistan.

Thailand:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Forbes; National Statistical Office of Thailand; Norman G. Owen, The Emergence of Modern Southeast Asia, Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2005; The9Billion.com; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Timor-Leste:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online.

Turkey:
City Guide of Turkey’s Capital; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Colin McEvedy, Cities of the Classical World, London: Penguin, 2011; Colin McEvedy, The New Penguin Atlas of Ancient History, London: Penguin, 2002; State Institute of Statistics, Republic of Turkey; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); A. A. Vasiliev, The Foundation of the Empire of Trebizond (1204-1222) in Speculum, Medieval Academy of America, 1936.

Turkmenistan:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Interstate Statistical Committee of the Commonwealth of Independent States.

United Arab Emirates:
Dubai Statistics Center; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Fujairah Statistics Center; Statistics Centre Abu Dhabi; The National (Abu-Dhabi Media).

Uzbekistan:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; State Committee of Statistics in Uzbekistan; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

Vietnam:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; General Statistics Office of Vietnam; Norman G. Owen, The Emergence of Modern Southeast Asia, Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2005; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Yemen:
Central Statistical Organisation, Republic of Yemen; City Mayors; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Peter N. Stearns, et. al., World Civilizations: The Global Experience, Sixth Edition, Upper Saddle River: Longman, 2011; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

EUROPE

Albania:
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Austria:
Austria Tourism Information; Statistik Austria; The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); Upper Austrian State Museum.

Belarus:
The Republic of Belarus Government; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus; Joshua Zimmerman, Poles, Jews, and the Politics of Nationality, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2004.

Belgium:
In Your Pocket Essential City Guides website; Statistics Belgium; Stephen Ward, Selling Places: The Marketing and Promotion of Towns and Cities, 1850-2000, London: Routledge, 1998; Carl Strikwerda, A House Divided: Catholics, Socialists, and Flemish Nationalists in Nineteenth-century Belgium, Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1997.

Bosnia & Herzegovina:
Bosnia and Herzegovina Agency for Statistics; National Public Radio; Republika Srpska Institute of Statistics.

Bulgaria:
Republic of Bulgaria National Statistical Institute; Jean Sedlar, East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500, Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1994.

Croatia:
City of Osijek; Croatian Bureau of Statistics; Total Split website.

Czech Republic:
City of Brno; City of České Budějovice; City of Ostrava; Czech Statistical Office; Czech Tourist Authority; Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones, Atlas of World Population History, London: Penguin, 1978; Municipality of Olomouc; University of Prague; University of West Bohemia.

Denmark:
Copenhagen Portal; Statistics Denmark; VisitAarhus – Official Aarhus Tourism website.

Estonia:
Statistics Estonia; The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

Finland:
Statistics Finland.

France:
A Virtual International Museum of Cities; Angus Maddison, The World Economy: Historical Statistics, Washington, DC: OECD Publishing, 2003; Hugh Johnson, World Atlas of Wine, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994; Limoges Fine Arts Museum; Colin McEvedy, Cities of the Classical World, London: Penguin, 2011; Colin McEvedy, The New Penguin Atlas of Medieval History. London: Penguin, 1992; Colin McEvedy, The Penguin Atlas of Modern History (to 1815), London: Penguin, 1986; Normandy Tourist Board; Reims Office of Tourism; The National Library of France; The World Bank; United Nations University; University of Toulouse.

Germany:
City of Berlin; City of Cologne; City of Dresden; City of Freiburg; City of Goslar; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Federal Statistical Office of Germany; German National Tourist Board; Historic Highlights of Germany; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division; World Guides

Greece:
Hellenic Statistical Authority; Colin McEvedy, Cities of the Classical World, London: Penguin, 2011; Anthony Tung, Preserving the World’s Great Cities: The Destruction and Renewal of the Historic Metropolis, New York: Three Rivers Press, 2001.

Hungary:
City of Budapest; Hungarian Central Statistical Office.

Ireland:
Central Statistics Office, Ireland.

Italy:
Angus Maddison, The World Economy: Historical Statistics, Washington, DC: OECD Publishing, 2003; David Abulafia, Short Oxford History of Italy: Italy in the Central Middle Ages, New York: Oxford University Press, 2004; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; History Channel; Colin McEvedy, Cities of the Classical World, London: Penguin, 2011; Colin McEvedy, Atlas of Medieval History, London: Penguin, 1992; Italian National Institute of Statistics; University of Bologna; University of Padua.

Kosovo:
Republic of Kosovo, Office of the Prime Minister, Kosovo Agency of Statistics.

Latvia:
Alfred Bilmanis, Latvia as an Independent State, Washington, DC: Lativian Legation, 1947; Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia.

Lithuania:
Jewish Virtual Library by the American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise; Statistics Lithuania; Vilnius Information.

Macedonia:
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Moldova:
National Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Moldova.

Netherlands:

Amsterdam Museum; Statistics Netherlands.

Norway:
Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Innovation Norway; Statistics Norway; Trondheim Local Authority. website

Poland:
A World History Encyclopedia: Poznan; A World History Encyclopedia: Wroclaw; Central Statistical Office of Poland; City of Gdańsk; City of Gniezno; City of Krakow; City of Lublin; Statistical Office in Krakow; StayPoland; U.S. Holocaust Museum; Joshua Zimmerman, Poles, Jews, and the Politics of Nationality, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2004.

Portugal:
Angus Maddison, The World Economy: Historical Statistics, Washington, DC: OECD Publishing, 2003; Instituto Nacional de Estadística; Colin McEvedy, The Penguin Atlas of Modern History (to 1815), London: Penguin, 1986; The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Romania:
Cluj County Regional Statistics Directorate; Primaria Municipiului Campulung; Romania National Institute of Statistics; Romania Tourism.

Russia:
David Christian, A History of Russia, Central Asia and Mongolia, Hoboken: Blackwell Publishing, 1998; City of Krasnodar; City of Nizhny Novgorod; Ekaterinburg Travel Agency; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones, Atlas of World Population History, London: Penguin, 1978; Moscow City Government; RT (Russia Today); Russian Federal Statistics Service; The Moscow Times; St. Petersburg Travel Agency; The RussiaTrek.org Project; United Nations; Florian Urban, Tower and Slab: Histories of Global Mass Housing, New York: Routledge, 2013; Volgograd Tourism Information; Yaroslavl Online.

Serbia:
City of Belgrade; City of Novi Sad; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia.

Slovakia:
City of Banská Bystrica; Ján Lacika, Bratislava: Visiting Slovakia (1st ed.), Mundelein: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 2000; Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Slovenia:
City of Ljubljana; Republic of Slovenia Statistical Office.

Spain:
Amusing Planet; Angus Maddison, The World Economy: Historical Statistics, Washington, DC: OECD Publishing, 2003; Cadiz Online Travel Guide; City of Alicante; City Of Girona; City of Malaga; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Madrid; Colin McEvedy, Cities of the Classical World, London: Penguin, 2011; Colin McEvedy, Atlas of Medieval History, London: Penguin, 1992; Spainthenandnow; The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); Tour Spain Travel Guide.

Sweden:
Tony Griffiths, Stockholm: A Cultural History, New York: Oxford University Press, 2009; Statistics Sweden.

Switzerland:
Swiss Federal Statistical Office.

Ukraine:
City of Dnipropetrovsk; City of Kharkiv; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine; Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones, Atlas of World Population History, London: Penguin, 1978; New World Encyclopedia; Online Ukrainian Travel Guide; State Statistics Committee of Ukraine; The Crimea Historical Society.

United Kingdom:
Angus, Maddison, The World Economy: Historical Statistics, Washington, DC: OECD Publishing, 2003; Birmingham City Council; F. Driver and D. Gilbert, eds., Imperial Cities: Landscape, Display and Identity, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003; Peter Hall, The First industrial City: Manchester 1760–1830, Cities in Civilisation, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1998; Colin McEvedy, Atlas of Medieval History, London: Penguin, 1992; Colin, McEvedy, The Penguin Atlas of Modern History (to 1815), London: Penguin, 1986; National Records of Scotland; Jean Manco, BuildingHistory.org, 2013; Adrian Rance, Southampton, An Illustrated History, Southampton City: Milestone Publications, 1986; U.K. National Statistics, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Sources for the Data Overlays

Human Land Use:
Ellis, E. C., K. Klein Goldewijk, S. Siebert, D. Lightman, and N. Ramankutty. 2010, Anthropogenic Transformation of the Biomes, 1700 to 2000. Global Ecology and Biogeography 19(5):589-606.

Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions:
Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude, accessed on 11/21/14

Fertility Rate:
National Statistics Republic of China (Taiwan); UN Population Division

Urbanization:
UN Population Division

Life Expectancy:
National Statistics Republic of China (Taiwan); UN Population Division

 

Sources for the Historical Timeline

1-100 CE

Chinese Medicine: Institute for Traditional Medicine; Encyclopedia Britannica Online; Science Museum of London, Brought to Life website.

Horse Collar: Donald Baker, “A Brief Excursion into Three Agricultural Revolutions,” Keuhnast Lecture, University of Minnesota, 1996.

Major Civilizations: Population Reference Bureau, “How Many People Have Ever Lived On Earth?” 2011; “Issues and Trends in China’s Demographic History,” Asia for Educators website, Columbia University, 2009.

Spice Trade Network: Tom Standage, An Edible History of Humanity, Walker and Co., 2010, p. 73.

 

101-200 CE

Antonine Plague: R. L. Littman and M. L. Littman, “Galen and the Antonine Plague,” American Journal of Philology, Vol. 94, No. 3, pp. 243-255, 1973; Cilliers Retief, Epidemics of the Roman Empire, South African Medical Journal, 2000.

Papermaking in China: Terry Breverton, Breverton’s Encyclopedia of Inventions, Quercus, 2012.

Ptolemy’s “Geographia”: GeoLounge website.

Roman Roads: Encyclopedia Britannica Online.

The Silk Road: Ancient History Encyclopedia Ltd. online; University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology website.

 

201-400 CE

Constantine the Great: “Constantine the Great Rules,” Timeline of Early Christianity, National Geographic website, 1996.

First Oil Wells: International Standards Worldwide, ASTM Standardization News Magazine, 2004.

Golden Age of India: TheIndianHistory.org

 

401-500 CE

Breastcollar Horse Harness: Terry Breverton, Breverton’s Encyclopedia of Inventions, Quercus, 2012.

Water Mill:  John H. Munro, Industrial energy from water-mills in the European economy, 5th to 18th Centuries: the limitations of power, Published in: Economia ed energia, seccoli XIII – XVIII, Atti delle ‘Settimane di Studi’ e altrie Convegni, Istituto Internazionale di Storia Economica, F. Datini , Vol. 34, No. 1 (2003): pp. 223-269.

 

501-600 CE

Dust Veil in South America: Joel Gun, The Years without Summer: Tracing AD 536 and its Aftermath, Oxford: Archaeopress, 2000.

Heavy-wheeled Plow: Donald Baker, “A Brief Excursion into Three Agricultural Revolutions,” Keuhnast Lecture, University of Minnesota, 1996.

Justinian Plague: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Peak of Mayan Civilization: Ancient History Encyclopedia Online.

 

601-700 CE

Beginning of Islam: Timeline of Islam, PBS website.

Three-crop Rotation: IEEE Spectrum.

 

701-800 CE

Japanese Smallpox Epidemic: Akihito Suzuki, “Smallpox and the Epidemiological Heritage of Modern Japan: Toward a Total History,” Medical History, July 2011, 55(3), pp. 313-318.

Papermaking in the Arab World: Aramco World website.

 

800-900 CE

Decline of the Mayan Civilization: Jared Diamond, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, New York: Viking, 2005.

Gunpowder Discovered: Terry Breverton, Breverton’s Encyclopedia of Inventions, Quercus, 2012.

 

901-1000 CE

First Windmills: National Renewable Energy Lab, U.S. Department of Energy website.

Pound Lock: Terry Breverton, Breverton’s Encyclopedia of Inventions, Quercus, 2012.

Smallpox Identified: Amira Ayad, “History of Medicines in the Islamic Civilization,” onislam.com, 2014.

Medieval Warm Period: S. Solomon, et. al., Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

 

1001-1100 CE

Avicenna and the Canon of Medicine: Science Museum of London, Brought to Life website.

 

1101-1200 CE

Angkor Wat: UNESCO website.

Cloth Mills: Michael Moissey Postan, The Cambridge Economic History of Europe Vol. II: Trade and industry in the Middle Ages, 1966, p. 670.

Forestry in Germany: Sabine Buttinger, Idee der Nachhalltigkeit [The Idea of Sustainability], Damals 45 (4), 2013, p. 8; John Rafferty, Forests and Grasslands, New York: Rosen Publishing Group, 2011.

Paper Money: “The Song Economic Revolution,” Asia for Educators website, Columbia University, 2009.

 

1201-1300 CE

Al-Mansuri Hospital:  Matthew E. Fallagas, et. al., “Arab Science in the Golden Age (750-1258 CE) and Today, The FASEB Journal, August 2006, Vol. 20, No. 10.

Blast Furnace in Europe: Joel Mokyr (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History, 2003.

Energy from Coal: Mike Edwards, “Marco Polo, Part II: In China,” National Geographic, 2011; John Dodson, et. al., “Use of Coal in the Bronze Age in China,” The Holocene 24, no. 5, 2014, pp. 525-530.

The Mongol Invasion: Alan McFarlane, The Savage Wars of Peace: England, Japan and the Malthusian Trap, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003, p. 50.

 

1301-1400 CE

Aquaculture in the Ming Dynasty: “Milestones in Aquaculture Development,” Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.

Aztecs: Ancient History Encyclopedia Ltd. Online.

The Black Death: “The Black Death, 1348,” Eyewitness to History website.

The Great Famine: Joel Mokyr (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History, 2003.

The Little Ice Age: S. Solomon, et al, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Magnetic Compass: Andrew Evans, “11 Inventions that Changed History,” History.com, 2012.

Pollution Control in England: Mira Engler, Designing America’s Waste Landscapes, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004, p. 90.

 

1401-1500 CE

Age of Iron in West Africa: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, Metropolitan Museum of Art website.

Aztec Medicine: Bernard Montellano, “Aztec Health,” Mexicolore website.

Invention of the Printing Press: Terry Breverton, Breverton’s Encyclopedia of Inventions, Quercus, 2012.

Maritime Route between Europe and India: “Vasco de Gama,” History.com

Voyages of Christopher Columbus: “Christopher Columbus,” History.com

 

1501-1600 CE

African Slave Trade: “In Motion: The African American Migration Experience” website, The New York Public Library’s Schomburg’s Center for Research in Black Culture.

Compound Microscope: History-of-the-microscope.org

Copernicus and His Heliocentric Model: “Nicolaus Copernicus,” Biography.com.

The Great Exchange: “Tobacco History,” Tobacco.org; “The Great Exchange,” Mariners Museum, Newport News, VA.

Smallpox in the Americas: Science Museum of London, Brought to Life website.

 

1601-1700 CE

Age of Enlightenment: “Enlightenment,” History.com.

Collapse of Easter Island: Peter Tyson, “The Fate of Easter Island,” Nova, PBS website.

Commercial Steam Engine: Carl T. Lira, “The Savery Pump,” Introductory Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics textbook supplement, Michigan State University College of Engineering website.

Jamestown Settlement: “Jamestown Colony,” History.com.

Invention of Forceps: Science Museum of London Brought to Life website.

Leeuwenhoek Observes Microbes: Janet L. Place, “Public Health History Timeline,” UNC Gillings School of Public Health website.

Peace of Westphalia: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Sustainable Resource Management in Japan: Jared Diamond, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, New York, Viking, 2005, p. 300.

Urban Planning in Pennsylvania: The Great American Grid website.

 

1701-1800 CE

A City of One Million: J. R. Schubel and Carolyn Levi, “The Emergence of the Megacities,” Medicine and Global Survival, June 2000, Vol. 6, No. 2, p. 107.

Capitalism: “Adam Smith,” Biography.com.

Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin: “Cotton Gin and Eli Whitney,” History.com.

First U.S. Census: U.S. Census Bureau website.

Flush Toilet: “The Development of the Flushing Toilet: Detailed Chronology 1596 onwards,” Twyford Bathrooms website.

Seed Drill: IEEE Spectrum (“Great Technological Moments in Food History”).

Personal Sacrifice in India: Pankaj Jain, Dharma and Ecology of Hindu Communities: Sustenance and Sustainability, Surrey, Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2011, p. 51.

Smallpox Vaccine: Science Museum of London Brought to Life website.

Thomas Malthus: BBC History website.

Thresher: IEEE Spectrum (“Great Technological Moments in Food History”).

 

1801-1850 CE

Child Labor: University of Iowa Labor Center website.

City Public Transit: John-Paul Rodrigue, “Omnibus, London, Late 19th Century,” Hofstra University Department of Global Studies, 2014.

Commercial Natural Gas Well: New York State Energy and Development Authority, New York’s Natural Gas and Oil Resource Endowment: Past, Present and Potential, 2007, p. 8. Photo credit: NYSDEC.

First Female Doctor in U.S.: Science Museum of London, Brought to Life website.

First Fertilizer Factory: Encyclopedia Britannica

Hydrogen Fuel Cell: “Fuel Cell Origins,” Smithsonian Institution website.

Invention of Canning: “Nicholas Appert,” Encyclopedia Britannica

Invention of the Telegraph: “Morse Code & the Telegraphy,” History.com.

Iodine in Salt: Angela M. Leung, et. al., “History of U.S. Iodine Fortification and Supplementation,” Nutrients, November 2012, 4 (11), pp. 1740-1746.

Irish Potato Famine: Eyewitness to History website.

Lewis and Clark Expedition: “Lewis and Clark Expedition Timeline,” National Geographic website.

New Farm Equipment: “The Story of Farming,” HistoryLink101 website.

Pioneer of Antiseptic Procedures: Science Museum of London Brought to Life website.

Start of Public Health Movement: Science Museum of London, Brought to Life website.

Steam-Powered Railway: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Women’s Rights: History.com

World Population Reaches 1 Billion:  James C. Riley, Rising Life Expectancy: A Global History, Cambridge University Press, 2002; Riley, James C, Estimates of Regional and Global Life Expectancy, 1800-2001, Population and Development Review, Vol. 31, No. 3 (Sept., 2005), pp. 537-543.

 

1851-1900 CE

Alexander Graham Bell’s Telephone: “Alexander Graham Bell – Inventions,” History.com.

American Public Health Association: American Public Health Association website.

American Romanticism: Elizabeth Witherell and Elizabeth Dubrulle, “The Writings of Henry D. Thoreau,” Thoreau Library website, University of California, Santa Barbara.

Aquaculture in the U.S.: NOAA Fisheries Service website.

Charles Darwin and Evolution: Natural Science Foundation website; Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species, 1859.

Electricity-Generating Windmill: Kajogbola R. Ajao and Modupe R. Mahamood, “Wind Energy Conservation System: The Past, Present and the Prospect,” Journal of American Science, Vol. 5, No. 6, 2009, pp. 17-22.

Ellis Island Opens: National Park Service website.

Epic Droughts: Mike Davis, Late Victorian Holocausts, Verso, 2001.

Gas-powered Car: Library of Congress Science Reference Services online; “Karl Benz,” Biography.com.

Invention of the Radio: “Guglielmo Marconi – Inventions,” History.com.

Lightbulb: U.S. Department of Energy website.

Malaria: “The History of Malaria,” U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website.

The National Labor Union: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Pasteurization: Science Museum of London, Brought to Life website.

Pre-Industrial CO2 Levels: S. Solomon, et al, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007; John Raven, et. al., Ocean Acidification due to Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, The Royal Society, 2005, p. 57.

Rubber Condom: A History of Contraception in America website, Case Western Reserve University.

Sierra Club: Michael P. Cohen, The History of the Sierra Club 1892-1970, New York: Random House, Inc., 1988.

Transcontinental Railroad Completed: “Transcontinental Railroad – Inventions,” History.com.

U.S. Conservation – National and State Parks: “A State Park System is Born,” California State Parks and Recreation website; National Park Service website.

Water-bourne Diseases and Sanitation: Science Museum of London Brought to Life website.

 

1901-1920

Beginning of Chemical Fertilizer: Jan Willem Enisman, et. al., “How a century of ammonia synthesis changed the world,” Nature Geoscience 1, 2008, pp. 636-639; Jonathan Mingle, “A Dangerous Fixation,” Slate, March 12, 2013.

First Birth Control Clinic: Science Museum of London Brought to Life website.

First Self-Service Grocery Store: Piggly-Wiggly website.

Ford’s Model T: “Model T,” History.com.

Genocide in the Ottoman Empire: Rutgers University, Center for the Study of Genocide and Human Rights website.

Hermetically Sealed Refrigerator: IEEE Spectrum (“Great Technological Moments in Food History”); General Electric website; Photo courtesy of General Electric.

Invention of Air Conditioning: Will Oremus, “A History of Air Conditioning,” Slate online, July 15, 2013. Photo Credit: Carrier Corporation.

Meat Inspection Act: U.S. Department of Agriculture website.

Passenger Pigeon Driven to Extinction: “The Passenger Pigeon,” Smithsonian Institution website.

Spanish Flu Epidemic: Janet L. Place, “Public Health History Timeline,” Southeast Public Health Training Center, UNC Gillings School of Public Health website.

Women’s Suffrage: “The Fight for Women’s Suffrage,” History.com.

Workers’ Rights: Industrial Workers of the World website.

World War I: PBS website.

Wright Brothers’ Flight: Fred Charters Kelly, The Wright Brothers: A Biography, Courier Dover Publications, 1989.

 

1921-1940

Advent of Frozen Food: Frozen Food Foundation website.

Antibiotics: Science Museum of London, Brought to Life website; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website.

Cigarettes in World War II: Tobacco.org.

Discovery of DDT: “Hermann J. Muller – Biographical,” Nobel Prize website.

First World Population Conference: John F. May, World Population Policies: Their Origin, Evolution and Impacts, Spring Science and Business Media, 2012, p. 105.

The Dust Bowl: American Experience, PBS website.

The Great Depression: “The Great Depression,” History.com.

The Holocaust: The U.S. Holocaust Museum website.

Hoover Dam: “Hoover Dam,” History.com.

Invention of the Television: “Philo T. Farnsworth,” Biography.com.

Kwashiorkor: Cicely D. Williams, “Kwashiorkor: A Nutritional Disease of Children Associated with a Maize Diet,” The Lancet, Vol. 226, No. 5855, 1935, pp. 1151-1152.

Species Protection in America: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service website.

The Washing Machine: Nick Squires, “Washing Machine ‘did more to liberate women than the pill’”, The Telegraph, March 9, 2009.

World Population Reaches 2 Billion: James C. Riley, Rising Life Expectancy: A Global History, Cambridge University Press, 2002; Riley, James C, Estimates of Regional and Global Life Expectancy, 1800-2001, Population and Development Review, Vol. 31, No. 3 (Sept., 2005), pp. 537-543.

World War II: National World War II Museum website.

 

1941-1950

The Baby Boom: “Baby Boomers,” History.com.

Malaria Eradication Efforts: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website.

The Manhattan Project: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Megacities: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Migration Between India and Pakistan: The Guardian, “History’s Greatest Migration,” September 25, 1947.

Rise of Poultry Consumption: U.S. Department of Agriculture website.

World Health Organization: World Health Organization website.

The United Nations: United Nations website.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights: United Nations website.

 

1951-1960

Birth Control Pills: Janet L. Place, “Public Health History Timeline,” Southeast Public Health Training Center, UNC Gillings School of Public Health website.

CO2 Monitoring in Hawaii: NOAA website.

Curbing Urban Sprawl: “Urban Growth Boundaries,” National League of Cities, Sustainable Cities Institute website.

Family Planning in India: Nova, PBS website.

First Solar Cell: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy website.

New Auto Emission Law in California: “Key Events in the History of Air Quality in California,” California Environmental Protection Agency website, 2012.

Polio Vaccine: The Salk Institute website.

The Great Leap Forward: Tania Branigan, “China’s Great Famine: The True Story,” The Guardian, January 1, 2013.

The Space Race: “The Space Race,” History.com.

World Population Reaches 3 Billion: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division; The World Bank, World Development Indicators (online).

 

1961-1970

The Bullet Train: Christopher P. Hood, Shinkansen: From Bullet Train to Symbol of Modern Japan, London: Routledge, 2006, p. 215.

The Cuyahoga River Fire: Ohio History Connection website.

Earth Day and the EPA: “Earth Day: The History of a Movement,” Earth Day Network website, 2014; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency website.

The Earth’s Ecological Footprint: “Living Planet Report,” World Wildlife Fund website.

Environmental Protection in America: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency website; U.S. National Park Service website.

Family Planning in Iran: Population Reference Bureau website.

Farm Workers’ Rights: Renee Skelton and Vernice Miller, “The Environmental Justice Movement,” Natural Resources Defense Council website, 2005.

Green Revolution: Nobel Prize website.

The Measles Vaccine: HistoryofVaccines.org

The Population Bomb: “Timeline: The Modern Environmental Movement,” American Experience, PBS website.

Santa Barbara Oil Spill: “Earth Day: The History of a Movement,” Earth Day Network website, 2014.

Silent Spring: Felicity Barringer, et. al., “Timeline: 70 Years of Environmental Change,” The New York Times website, 2010.

Smoking Warnings: Tobacco.org

The Tragedy of the Commons: Garrett Hardin, “The Tragedy of the Commons,” Science Vol. 162, No. 3859 (1968), pp. 1242-1248; Photo courtesy of The Garrett Hardin Society.

A Walk on the Moon: PBS website.

World Food Program: World Food Program of the U.N. website.

 

1971-1980

Ban of DDT: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency website.

Cambodian Genocide:  Rebecca Joyce Frey, Genocide and International Justice, Facts on File, 2009.

Cellular Phone: HowStuffWorks website; ITU website.

China’s One-Child Policy: Malcolm Moore, “What is China’s One-Child Policy,” The Telegraph, October 30, 2014.

Curbside Recycling: The University of California, Berkeley website.

An End to Leaded Gas: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency website.

First Email Sent: Centre for Computing History website.

First Female President: Encyclopedia Britannica online.

Home Pregnancy Test Kit: Science Museum of London, Brought to Life website.

Nuclear Meltdown at Three-Mile Island: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission website.

Smallpox Eradicated: World Health Organization website.

Test-tube Baby: International Committee Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ICMART) website.

Tobacco Consumption: Orzechowski and Walker, “The Tax burden of Tobacco, Historical Compilation,” Vol. 35, 2000.

Toxic Waste at Love Canal: “Timeline: The Modern Environmental Movement,” American Experience, PBS website.

World Population Reaches 4 Million: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division; World Bank, World Development Indicators (online).

 

1981-1990

Declining Biodiversity: E.O. Wilson, Biodiversity, Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1988.

Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) website.

HIV Identified: AIDS.gov, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Hole in the Ozone Layer: J.C. Farman, et. al., “Large Losses of Total Ozone in Antarctica Reveal Seasonal CIOx/NOx Interaction,” Nature, Vol. 315, No. 6061 (1985), pp. 207-210; “The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer,” United Nations Environment Program website.

Iodine Deficiency Prevention:  Donald G. McNeil, Jr., “In Raising the World’s I.Q., the Secret’s in the Salt,” The New York Times, December 16, 2006.

Jobs vs. Owls: Oregon Fish and Wildlife Service website.

The IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change website.

Nuclear Meltdown at Chernobyl: United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission website.

Passing 350 ppm: James Hansen, et. al., “Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim?” Open Atmospheric Science Journal, No. 2 (2008), pp. 217-231; 350.org website.

Solar Power: California Energy Commission website.

Union Carbide Disaster in Bhopal, India: Edward Broughton, “The Bhopal Disaster and its Aftermath: A Review,” Environmental Health, Vol. 4, No. 6 (2005).

World Population Reaches 5 Billion: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs,  Population Division; World Bank, World Development Indicators (online)

World Wide Web: World Wide Web Foundation website.

 

1991-2000

The Earth Summit: “Kyoto Protocol.” United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change website; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs website.

GMOs in Our Food Supply: PBS website.

Hybrid Electric Cars: U.S. Department of Energy website; National Motor Museum (Australia) website.

Meat Consumption Rising

Millenium Development Goals: United Nations website.

Obesity Epidemic : World Health Organization website.

Rwandan Genocide:  BBC News Africa website, May 17, 2011, “Rwanda: How the genocide happened.”

World Population Conference: United Nations Population Fund website.

World Population Reaches 6 Billion: United Nations Population Division; World Bank, World Development Indicators (online)

 

 

2001-2010

China Surpasses U.S. as Largest Carbon Emitter: “China Overtakes U.S. in Greenhouse Gas Emissions,” New York Times, June 20, 2007.

Climate Change is “Unequivocal”: Johannes Friedrich and Thomas Damassa, “The History of Carbon Dioxide Emissions,” The World Resources Institute, May 21, 2014; IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 

Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency website.

Farm Labor: Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN (FAO) website.

Global Financial Crisis: “The Origins of the Financial Crisis,” The Economist, September 7, 2013.

Global Fisheries in Jeopardy: Borris Worm, et. al., “Impacts of Biodversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services,” Science, Vol. 314, No. 5800 (2006). Pp. 787-790.

Growing Ecological Footprint: “Living Planet Report,” World Wildlife Fund website.

Human Genome Sequenced: Janet L. Place, “Public Health History Timeline,” Southeast Public Health Training Center, UNC Gillings School of Public Health website.

An Inconvenient Truth: Nobel Prize website.

Katrina Strikes New Orleans: Aslak Grinsted, et. al., “Projected Atlantic Hurricane Threat from Rising Temperatures,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, Vol. 110, No. 14 (2013), pp. 5369-5373.

Safe Drinking Water: United Nations Millenium Development Goals website.

Urban World: United Nations Population Fund website.

World Hunger: Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) website.

 

2011-2020

Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan: World Nuclear Association website.

Effects of Climate Change: IPCC website.

Global Health Progress: “World Malaria Report 2014,” World Health Organization; “Child Mortality Estimates,” UNICEF. 

Hole in the Ozone Layer Shrinking: Assessment for Decision-Makers: Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2014, World Meteorological Organization, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project – Report No. 56, Geneva, Switzerland.

International Year of Soils: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.

Lifestyle Diseases on the Rise: World Health Organization website; “World Population is Getting Fatter,” CBS News website, May 29, 2014.

Meat Production Rising: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations website.

More Megacities: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Record-breaking CO2 Concentrations: Andrea Thompson and Climate Central, “CO2 Levels Above 400 ppm Threshold for Third Month in a Row,” Scientific American, July 2, 2014.

Recycled Content of Paper: “Living Planet Report,” World Wildlife Fund website.

U.S. and China to Curb Carbon Emissions: Mark Lander, “U.S. and China Reach Climate Accord After Months of Talks,” New York Times, November 11, 2014.

World Population Reaches 7 Billion: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division; World Bank, World Development Indicators (online).

Largest World’s Solar Plant: National Renewable Energy Laboratory website.

 

2021-2050

Coral Reefs in Danger: “Living Planet Report,” World Wildlife Fund website.

Freshwater Scarcity: IPCC website; World Bank website.

Future of Megacities: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Future Tobacco Deaths: American Cancer Society website.

Global Cancer Burden: American Cancer Society website.

Living Beyond Our Means: “Living Planet Report,” World Wildlife Fund website.

World Population at 9 Billion: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

 

Photo Sources for Timeline: GETTY, ISTOCK, GE, NYSDEC, WILLIS CARRIER CORPORATION, GARRET HARDIN SOCIETY, WIKI COMMONS

Sources for the Lesson Plans

Lesson 1: The Peopling of Our Planet:
Laura Blue and Thomas J. Espenshade, “Population Momentum Across the Demographic Transition,” Population Development Review, 2011, pp. 721-747.

Livi-Bacci Massimo, A Concise History of World Population, 4th Edition, Maiden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2007.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Control of Infectious Diseases,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Review, July 30, 1999; 48 (29); pp. 621-629.

Mark Overton, “Agricultural Revolution in England 1500-1850,” BBC Online.

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division, World Population Prospects, the 2015 Revision.

Mark Willner, et. al., Global History: The Industrial Revolution to the Age of Globalization, Volume 2, Barron’s Educational Series, 2007, pp.46-63.

The World Bank Group, Beyond Economic Growth: An Introduction to Sustainable Development, 2nd Edition, The World Bank Development Education Program, 2004.

Lesson 2: A Demographically Divided World:
Sources for Region Cards: United Nations Population Division, UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Population Reference Bureau

Lesson 4: The Carbon Crunch:
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, “Climate Change 2014 Synthesis Report Summary for Policy Makers.

World Resources Institute, “History of Carbon Dioxide Emissions,” Johannes Friedrich, May 21, 2014 (blog).

United Nations Statistics Division, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2010.

Center for Global Development, Mapping the Impacts of Climate Change.

Climate Central, “IPCC Report Contains ‘Grave” Carbon Budget Message,” October 4, 2013.

Michael Raupach, et. al., “Sharing a Quota on Cumulative Carbon Emissions, Nature Climate Change, 4; pp. 873-879 (2014).

Image (infographic) Source: World Resources Institute.

Lesson 6: Where Do We Grow From Here?:
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division, World Population Prospects, the 2015 Revision.

 

CREDITS

Project Managers: Pam Wasserman and Carol Bliese

Content Developers: Carol Bliese, Lindsey Bailey, Lauren Boucher, Lauren Carlson, Drew Grover, Isabelle Rios, Pam Wasserman

Content Editors: Sam Corwin, Yixin Jiao

Demographic Research and Data Compilation: Amanda Frank

Website Production: Pixeldust Studios, Manteca, Lev Interactive

World Population Map and Animation developed using ESRI’s ArcGIS Explorer.